Volume 5.19 | May 18

Cancer Stem Cell News 5.19 May 18, 2016
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Oncogenic mTOR Signaling Recruits Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells to Promote Tumor Initiation
The authors demonstrated that mTOR signaling in cancer cells dictates a mammary tumor’s ability to stimulate myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulation through regulating G-CSF. Inhibiting this pathway or its activators impairs tumor progression, which is partially rescued by restoring MDSCs or G-CSF. Tumor-initiating cells exhibit elevated G-CSF. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Cancer Stem-Like Properties in Colorectal Cancer Cells with Low Proteasome Activity
One of the main reasons for cancer treatment resistance is the existence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The authors elucidated the relationship between low proteasome activity cells and CSCs. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

The RNA Binding Protein IMP2 Preserves Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Preventing let-7 Target Gene Silencing
Investigators found that glioblastoma stem cells lack LIN28 and express both let-7 and their target genes, suggesting LIN28-independent protection from let-7 silencing. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

The Marrow Niche Controls the Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype of Disseminated Prostate Cancer
Researchers showed that disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) recovered from marrow were significantly enriched for a cancer stem cells (CSCs) phenotype. Critically, the conversion of DTCs to CSCs is regulated by niche-derived GAS6 through the Mer/mTOR; molecules previously shown to regulate dormancy. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Thyroid Hormone Promotes Tumorigenicity through Inducing Cancer Stem-Like Cell Self-Renewal
Investigators report that thyroid hormone (TH) promotes cell self-renewal in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. TH also increases the percentage of CD90+ HCC cells and promotes drug resistance of HCC cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

CD44 Variant-Dependent Redox Status Regulation in Liver Fluke-Associated Cholangiocarcinoma: A Target for CCA Treatment
Researchers examined cystine-glutamate transporter-targeted CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v)-cancer stem cell therapy using sulfasalazine. Glutathione decreased and ROS increased after the treatment, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Thus, the accumulation of CD44v leads to the suppression of p38MAPK in transforming bile duct cells. [Cancer Sci] Abstract

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor SU11274 Increased Tumorigenicity and Enriched for Melanoma-Initiating Cells by Bioenergetic Modulation
The authors showed that SU11274 enriched for melanoma-initiating cells in vivo. SU11274 substantially decreased number of cells in adherent and spheroid cultures, but increased their tumorigenic potential as determined by higher frequency of tumor-initiating cells in vivo. [BMC Cancer] Full Article

Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype
Researchers characterized the phenotype of tumor cells in the periphery focusing on tumor stemness, proliferation and chemo-resistance. This was investigated in situ in patient glioma tissue as well as in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts. [PLoS One] Full Article

Cancer Stem Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line H446: Higher Dependency on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation than Non-Stem Cancer Cells
Scientists found that cancer stem cells had significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than non-stem cancer cells. Meanwhile, this subpopulation of cells consumed less glucose, produced less lactate and maintained lower ATP levels. [PLoS One] Full Article

Targeted Inhibition of Dominant PI3-kinase Catalytic Isoforms Increase Expression of Stem Cell Genes in Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cell Models
Researchers examined the effect of isoform specific PI3K inhibitors in two models of glioblastoma (GBM) ancer stem cells, an established GBM stem cell line 08/04 and a neurosphere formation model. They identified the dominant catalytic PI3K isoform for each model, and inhibition of the dominant isoform blocked AKT phosphorylation, as did pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibition. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Divergent Modulation of Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells by Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 Signaling
Thrombospondin-1 is not required for embryonic development, but studies using lineage-committed adult stem cells have identified positive and negative effects of thrombospondin-1 on stem cell differentiation and self-renewal and identified several thrombospondin-1 receptors that mediate these responses. [Int J Biochem Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Pacific Edge Presents Positive Cxbladder Monitor Results
Pacific Edge Limited announced the presentation of positive results from a prospective multicenter, blinded study of Cxbladder MonitorTM, the company’s new urine-based gene expression test for the investigation of urothelial carcinoma in patients presenting for monitoring of recurrent disease. [Press release from Pacific Edge Limited discussing research presented at the 2016 American Urological Association (AUA) Conference, San Diego] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
FDA Approves Eisai’s LENVIMA® (Lenvatinib) for the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma in Combination with Everolimus following Prior Anti-Angiogenic Therapy
Eisai Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved LENVIMA®, the company’s multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with everolimus for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who were previously treated with an anti-angiogenic therapy. [Eisai Inc.] Press Release

South Korea Is First to Approve Next Generation Lung Cancer Treatment Olmutinib (BI 1482694 / HM61713)
Olmutinib has been approved in South Korea for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer, who had been previously treated with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. [Boehringer Ingelheim (Business Wire)] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW From Stem Cells to Human Development
September 25-28, 2016
Southbridge, Massachusetts

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Scientific Communications and Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Associate Director – Translational Science Oncology (AstraZeneca)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Adaptive T-Cell Therapy for Cancer (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Myeloid Cells in Cancer Patients (The Wistar Institute)

Faculty Position – Multidisciplinary Research Programs (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Genome and Epigenome of Pediatric Cancer (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital)

Group Leader – Normal Epithelium and Cancer Stem Cells (Institut Curie)

Group Leader – Various Projects (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prostate Epithelial Homeostasis and Carcinogenesis (Baylor College of Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Immune-Oncology (PTM Biolabs Inc.)

Director – Cancer Genomics (Ontario Institute for Cancer Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genomics (The Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Staff Scientist – Cell Therapy Process Development (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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