Volume 5.17 | May 4

Cancer Stem Cell News 5.17 May 4, 2016
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Melatonin Inhibits Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells via the AKT-EZH2-STAT3 Signaling Axis
Researchers used glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) isolated from surgical specimens from glioblastoma multiforme patients to study the roles and underlying mechanisms associated with melatonin in GSC biology. The results showed that melatonin directly targeted glioma tumor cells by altering GSC biology and inhibiting GSC proliferation. [J Pineal Res] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Combined Inhibition of DNMT and HDAC Blocks the Tumorigenicity of Cancer Stem-Like Cells and Attenuates Mammary Tumor Growth
Scientists used the MMTV-Neu-Tg mouse mammary tumor model to identify potential new strategies for eliminating cancer stem cells. They found that both luminal progenitor and basal stem cells are susceptible to genetic and epigenetic modifications, which facilitate oncogenic transformation and tumorigenic potential. [Cancer Res] Abstract | Press Release

MET Inhibition Overcomes Radiation Resistance of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells
Scientists showed that the MET receptor kinase, a functional marker of stem-like cells (GSCs), is specifically expressed in a subset of radioresistant GSCs and overexpressed in human glioblastoma recurring after radiotherapy. [EMBO Mol Med] Full Article

Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Regulate Tumor-Initiating Cell Plasticity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 Signaling
Because hepatocellular carcinoma develops primarily in the context of cirrhosis, in which there is an enrichment of activated fibroblasts, the authors hypothesized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) would regulate liver tumor-initiating cells. They found that the presence of α-SMA(+) CAFs correlates with poor clinical outcome. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Repurposing Atovaquone: Targeting Mitochondrial Complex III and OXPHOS to Eradicate Cancer Stem Cells
The authors showed that atovaquone has anti-cancer activity, directed against cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). They demonstrated that atovaquone treatment of MCF7 breast cancer cells inhibits oxygen-consumption and metabolically induces aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), as well as oxidative stress. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Cancer Stem Cells Are Underestimated by Standard Experimental Methods in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
While tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) appeared rare in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ/ mice, xenografts formed more efficiently from small tumor fragments, indicating the limiting dilution assay (LDA) underestimated ccRCC TIC frequency. Mechanistic interrogation of the LDA identified multiple steps that influence ccRCC TIC quantitation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

CD95 Maintains Stem Cell-Like and Non-Classical EMT Programs in Primary Human Glioblastoma Cells
Scientists showed that the expression of CD95 associates with stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features in glioblastoma tumors and cells and serves as a prognostic biomarker. CD95 expression increases in tumors and with tumor relapse as compared with non-tumor tissue. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Forkhead Box Q1 Is A Novel Target of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Inhibition by Diallyl Trisulfide
Scientists demonstrated that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) targets breast cancer stem cells (bCSC). Exposure of MCF-7 and SUM159 human breast cancer cells to pharmacological concentrations of DATS resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of bCSC as evidenced by mammosphere assay and flow cytometric analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity and CD44high/CD24low/epithelial specific antigen-positive fraction. [J Biol Chem] Full Article

Cell Division Patterns and Chromosomal Segregation Defects in Oral Cancer Stem Cells
Examining biomarkers and other features of cancer stem cells (CSC) is critical to better understanding their biology. To this end, the authors’ results show that cellular SOX2 immunostaining correlates with other CSC biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and marks the rare CSC population. [Genes Chromosomes Cancer] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Cancer Metabolism: A Therapeutic Perspective
The reviewers discuss how cancer cells reprogram their metabolism and that of other cells within the tumor microenvironment in order to survive and propagate, thus driving disease progression; in particular, they highlight potential metabolic vulnerabilities that might be targeted therapeutically. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
AbbVie to Expand Oncology Presence Through Acquisition of Stemcentrx and its Novel, Late-Stage Rova-T Compound for Small Cell Lung Cancer
AbbVie announced that it will acquire Stemcentrx and its lead late-stage asset rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) currently in registrational trials for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Rova-T is a novel biomarker-specific therapy that is derived from cancer stem cells and targets delta-like protein 3 that is expressed in more than 80 percent of SCLC patient tumors and is not present in healthy tissue. [AbbVie] Press Release

Vigilant Biosciences Receives CE Mark for OncAlert™ Oral Cancer RAPID Test to Aid in Diagnosis of Oral Cancer
Vigilant Biosciences, Inc. announced that it has CE Marked its OncAlert Oral Cancer RAPID Test. CE Marking allows Vigilant Biosciences to market the product in the 28 countries of the European Union as well as Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. [Vigilant Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release

FDA Grants Priority Review for Lilly’s Olaratumab, an Investigational Medicine for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Eli Lilly and Company announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted Priority Review for the biologics license application for olaratumab, a PDGFRα antagonist, in combination with doxorubicin, for the potential treatment of people with advanced soft tissue sarcoma not amenable to curative treatment with radiotherapy or surgery. [Eli Lilly and Company] Press Release

SELLAS Life Sciences Group Announces Initiation of Galinpepimut-S (WT1 Cancer Vaccine) Phase I Clinical Trial in Combination with PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor for Patients with Ovarian Cancer
SELLAS Life Sciences Group announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SELLAS’s galinpepimut-S in combination with nivolumab (Opdivo®), Bristol- Myers Squibb’s PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor. [SELLAS Life Sciences Group] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Nine Years of Censorship
Canadian scientists are now allowed to speak out about their work — and the government policy that had restricted communications. [Nature News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Nordic Life Science Days 2016
September 14-15, 2016
Stockholm, Sweden

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Group Leader – Normal Epithelium and Cancer Stem Cells (Institut Curie)

Group Leader – Various Projects (Monash University)

Senior Research Associate – Bioinformatics of Lung Cancer Evolution (University College London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prostate Epithelial Homeostasis and Carcinogenesis (Baylor College of Medicine)

Senior Scientist – Immune-Oncology (PTM Biolabs Inc.)

Research Technician – Nutrition and Cancer (St. Anne’s University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Stem Cell Research (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Director – Cancer Genomics (Ontario Institute for Cancer Research)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Genomics (The Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Breast and Ovarian Cancer (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Division of Cancer Biology (Case Western Reserve University)

Tenure Track Position – Cancer Biology (University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center)

PhD Studentship – Peptide Receptors in Cancer Stem Cells (Exiris/Bielefeld University)

Faculty Position – Cancer Research (Various Areas) (The Jackson Laboratory)

Staff Scientist – Cell Therapy Process Development (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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