Volume 5.02 | Jan 20

Cancer Stem Cell News 5.02 January 20, 2016
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Mutational Spectrum of Barrett’s Stem Cells Suggests Paths to Initiation of a Precancerous Lesion
Investigators report the isolation and propagation of distinct, patient-matched stem cells of Barrett’s, gastric and esophageal epithelia that yield divergent tumor types following in vitro transformation and xenografting.
[Nat Commun]
Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Hypoxia Promotes Cancer Stem Cells via ID2-Dependent VHL Inactivation
The authors reported that hypoxia inactivates DYRK1, preventing ID2 phosphorylation and promoting cancer stem cells and HIF2α stabilization. [Cancer Discov] Abstract

Nuclear AURKA Acquires Kinase-Independent Transactivating Function to Enhance Breast Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype
Scientists showed that AURKA translocates to the nucleus and causes distinct oncogenic properties in malignant cells by enhancing breast cancer stem cell phenotype. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Ginsenoside Rh2 Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma through β-Catenin and Autophagy
Researchers treated human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with different doses of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2), and found that GRh2 dose-dependently reduced HCC viability, in either CCK-8 assay or MTT assay. The effects of GRh2 on the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells were determined by ALDEFLUOR™ flow cytometry and by tumor sphere formation, showing that GRh2 dose-dependently decreased the number of these CSC-like cells in HCC. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Identification of Distinct Breast Cancer Stem Cell Populations Based on Single-Cell Analyses of Functionally Enriched Stem and Progenitor Pools
By combining extensive single-cell gene expression profiling with three functional strategies for cancer stem cell enrichment including anchorage-independent culture, hypoxia, and analyses of low-proliferative, label-retaining cells derived from mammospheres, researchers identified distinct stem cell clusters in breast cancer. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Role of a Polyphenol-Enriched Preparation on Chemoprevention of Mammary Carcinoma through Cancer Stem Cells and Inflammatory Pathways Modulation
This study evaluated the effect of a polyphenol-enriched blueberry preparation and its non-fermented counterpart, on mammary cancer stem cell development in in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo settings. [J Transl Med] Full Article

Alpinetin Targets Glioma Stem Cells by Suppressing Notch Pathway
Researchers found that alpinetin, a natural compound, can suppress the proliferation and invasiveness of glioma stem cells (GSCs) and induce apoptosis in GSCs. [Tumour Biol] Abstract

SPARC Expression Is Selectively Suppressed in Tumor Initiating Urospheres Isolated from As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa) Stably Transfected with SPARC
Urospheres isolated from cultures of the SPARC-transfected arsenite (As+3)-and cadmium (Cd+2)-transformed cell lines were shown to have only background expression of SPARC. Urospheres from both the non-transfected and SPARC-transfected cell lines were tumorigenic and thus fit the definition for a population of tumor initiating cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Overexpression of SDF-1 Activates the NF-κB Pathway to Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes of Breast Cancer Cells
Scientists screened MCF-7 cells with low stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression level for the purpose of evaluating whether SDF-1 is involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like phenotype formation in MCF-7 cells. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

Long Non-Coding RNA BACE1-AS Is a Novel Target for Anisomycin-Mediated Suppression of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Proliferation and Invasion
Researchers explored whether anisomycin could suppress human ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) proliferation and invasion. The CD44+/CD117+ OCSCs were enriched from human clinical ovarian tumor tissues. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

Phenotypic Plasticity Determines Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutic Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Examining oral squamous cell carcinoma, researchers showed that increased phenotypic plasticity, the ability to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)/mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), underlies increased cancer stem cells therapeutic resistance within both the epithelial and post-EMT sub-populations. [EBioMedicine] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 in Stem Cells and Cancer
Researchers review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozyme linked to stem cells populations and an important contributor to cancer stem cells function in cancers, and they outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Unwitting Accomplices in Breast Cancer Malignancy
The authors discuss the dynamic process whereby molecular and cellular features of the tumor microenvironment act to license tissue-repair mechanisms of macrophages, fostering angiogenesis, metastasis and the support of cancer stem cells. [npj Breast Cancer] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Regen BioPharma, Inc. and the National Institutes of Health to Collaborate
Regen BioPharma, Inc. announced that the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health, and Regen have entered into a formal research collaboration agreement to jointly explore the biology of the NR2F6 protein. The NR2F6 nuclear receptor has been identified as a potentially important immune cell inhibitor and cancer stem cell differentiator. [Regen BioPharma, Inc. (PR Newswire)] Press Release

Tiziana Life Sciences to Drive Its First-In-Class Bcl-3 Inhibitor, Focused on a Novel Cancer Target, Into the Clinic in 2016
Tiziana Life Sciences PLC, announced that its research agreement with Cardiff University, focused on pioneering the development of Bcl-3 inhibitors as potential drugs to treat cancer, has led to the identification of a first-in-class lead clinical candidate, CB1, with potent anti-metastatic activity, and with an impressive in vivo efficacy and safety profile. [Tiziana Life Sciences PLC] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cancer as an Evolving and Systemic Disease
March 12-15, 2016
New York City, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Post-Doc Fellowship – Bioinformatics RNA Biology and Cancer (German Cancer Research Center)

NEW Post-Doc Fellowship – Genetics and Genomics of Stem Cells (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

NEW Tenure Track Professorship – Tumor Biology and Signal Transduction (University Medical Center Gottingen)

Professor – Cancer Immunotherapy (Stanford Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Follicular Lymphoma (Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Prostate Cancer Biology (Roswell Park Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell and Molecular Biology of Leukemia (Virginia Commonwealth University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Cleveland Clinic)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunotherapy Targeting Cancer Stem Cells (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)

Assistant Member – Radioimmunotherapy (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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