Volume 4.36 | Sep 23

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.36 September 23, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Turn On Stem Cell Genes
Scientists describe capturing and studying individual metastatic cells from human breast cancer tumors implanted into mice as the cells escaped into the blood stream and began to form tumors elsewhere in the body. They discovered that genetic programs expressed in these cells were quite distinct from the primary tumors in which they originated and included genes typically expressed in mammary stem cells. [Press release from the University of California, San Francisco discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
HDAC8 Inhibition Specifically Targets Inv(16) Acute Myeloid Leukemic Stem Cells by Restoring p53 Acetylation
Scientists showed that p53 activity is inhibited in inv(16)+ acute myeloid leukemia leukemia stem cells (LSCs) via interactions with the CBFβ-SMMHC fusion protein and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). HDAC8 aberrantly deacetylates p53 and promotes LSC transformation and maintenance. [Cell Stem Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

CD93 Marks a Non-Quiescent Human Leukemia Stem Cell Population and Is Required for Development of MLL-Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Researchers showed that acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) with genomic rearrangements of the MLL gene contain a non-quiescent leukemia stem cell (LSC) population. Although human CD34+CD38 LSCs are generally highly quiescent, the C-type lectin CD93 is expressed on a subset of actively cycling, non-quiescent AML cells enriched for LSC activity. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Loss of the Tumor Suppressor Spinophilin (PPP1R9B) Increases the Cancer Stem Cell Population in Breast Tumors
Investigators explored the mechanism of how spinophilin downregulation contributes to the malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in breast tumors and found an increase in the stemness phenotype. [Oncogene] Abstract

SLUG Is Required for SOX9 Stabilization and Functions to Promote Cancer Stem Cells and Metastasis in Human Lung Carcinoma
The authors identified two proteins, SLUG and SOX9, which are associated with advanced stage lung cancers and are implicated in the regulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Inhibition of either SLUG or SOX9 sufficiently inhibits CSCs in human lung cancer cells and attenuates experimental lung metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. [Oncogene] Abstract

Anti-Estrogen Resistance in Human Breast Tumors Is Driven by JAG1-NOTCH4-Dependent Cancer Stem Cell Activity
Investigators showed that short-term treatment with the anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant decrease cell proliferation but increase breast cancer stem cell activity through JAG1-NOTCH4 receptor activation both in patient-derived samples and xenograft tumors. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Transcriptional Profiling of Dividing Tumor Cells Detects Intratumor Heterogeneity Linked to Cell Proliferation in a Brain Tumor Model
The authors developed a method for transcriptional profiling of gliomas, using a novel technique to dissect the tumors into two fundamental cellular subsets, namely, the proliferating and non-proliferating cell fractions. [Mol Oncol] Abstract

Prognostic Significance of Leucine-Rich-Repeat-Containing G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 5, an Intestinal Stem Cell Marker, in Gastric Carcinomas
Researchers examined the LGR5 expression in gastric cancer tissues by real time-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, and analyzed its clinicopathological relevance and prognostic value. The effects of LGR5 on cancer cell proliferation and migration were assessed with an in vitro transfection technique. [Gastric Cancer] Abstract

A New Insight into Cancer Stem Cell Markers: Could Local and Circulating Cancer Stem Cell Markers Correlate in Colorectal Cancer?
Scientists investigated the local expression of doublecortin-like kinase 1 and Lgr5 in colorectal cancer tissues at both protein and messenger RNA level, followed by providing a comparison of the local and circulating expression pattern of these markers. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Role of Steroid Hormones in Breast Cancer Stem Cells
The authors discuss recent studies highlighting how ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone, as well as therapies against them, can regulate breast cancer stem cell activity. [Endocr Relat Cancer] Abstract

Current Approaches in Identification and Isolation of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells
The authors summarize recent data concerning isolation techniques for cancer stem cells using magnetic cell sorting and flow cytometry. They focus on the strategies for sample preparation during flow cytometric analysis, elaborating biomarkers such as CXCR4, CD105, and CD133. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
BioInvent and the University of Pennsylvania Enhance Planned Clinical Study with BI-505
BioInvent International announced that the company and its partner, the University of Pennsylvania, have decided to expand their planned clinical Phase II study with the antibody BI-505 by, among other things, including a control group. This will increase the study data quality and accelerate the path for approval of a potential new drug for multiple myeloma. [BioInvent International] Press Release

Regen Biopharma Inc. Initiates Small Molecule Hit Validation Study on Cancer Stem Cell Target Gene
Regen BioPharma Inc. announced that it has initiated studies for its small molecule drug discovery platform on its cancer stem cell target gene. These studies are expected to be completed within the next two months. [Regen BioPharma Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Canadian Election Spotlights Scientists’ Frustrations
Canadians will head to the polls on October 19th, in a federal election that many scientists hope will mark a turning point after years of declining research budgets and allegations of government censorship. Although science has not emerged as a top issue during the campaign, researchers are fighting to make their concerns heard. [Nature News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Innovation and Biomarkers in Cancer Drug Development (IBCD)
December 3-4, 2015
Brussels, Belgium

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell, Developmental, and Cancer Biology (University of California Santa Cruz)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell, Developmental, and Cancer Biology (Columbia University Medical Center)

NEW Assistant Professor – Stem Cell Biology (University of South Carolina)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Breast Cancer Invasion / Extracellular Matrix / Proteomics / Microscopy (University of Liverpool)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Cancer Biology (Mass General Cancer Center/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vascular Biology/Oncology (University of Toulouse)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (National Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)


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