Volume 4.35 | Sep 16

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.35 September 16, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Double Discovery Boosts Global Quest for Leukemia Cures
Researchers have discovered how a form of leukemia fights back against a ground-breaking treatment, providing vital new leads on how to outwit the deadly disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cells are particularly aggressive, insidious and nimble. Knowing how they respond when under attack enables researchers to devise interventions that can neutralize the source of resistance before it develops. [Press release from Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract
Learn More: Column-Free Enrichment of Mouse Mammary Stem & Progenitor Cells
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
MYC/PGC-1α Balance Determines the Metabolic Phenotype and Plasticity of Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells
The anti-diabetic drug metformin targets pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs), but not their differentiated progenies (non-CSCs), which may be related to distinct metabolic phenotypes. The authors demonstrated that while non-CSCs were highly glycolytic, CSCs were dependent on oxidative metabolism with very limited metabolic plasticity. [Cell Metab] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Sox10 Regulates Stem/Progenitor and Mesenchymal Cell States in Mammary Epithelial Cells
Scientists showed that Sox10 is specifically expressed in mammary cells exhibiting the highest levels of stem/progenitor activity. This includes fetal and adult mammary cells in vivo and mammary organoids in vitro. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Proton Beam Radiation Induces DNA Damage and Cell Apoptosis in Glioma Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species
By utilizing patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs), researchers showed that proton radiation generates greater cytotoxicity in GSCs than x-ray photon radiation. Compared with photon radiation, proton beam irradiation induces more single and double strand DNA breaks, less H2AX phosphorylation, increased Chk2 phosphorylation, and reduced cell cycle recovery from G2 arrest, leading to caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and cell apoptosis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

NK Cells Preferentially Target Tumor Cells with a Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype
Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed cancer stem cell (CSC) viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. [J Immunol] Abstract

Promotion of Cancer Stem-Like Cell Properties in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Hepatocytes
The c-Kit receptor is regarded as one of the cancer stem-like cell markers in HCC. Researchers found c-Kit is highly expressed in transformed human hepatocytes infected in vitro with cell culture grown hepatitis C virus genotype 2a. [J Virol] Abstract

Molecular Profiles of Cancer Stem-Like Cell Populations in Aggressive Thyroid Cancers
Scientists investigated the effects of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inhibitor crizotinib on both cell proliferation and phosphorylation status of tyrosine kinase receptor targets. The cancer stem-like properties of a subset of cells from primary cultures of each tumor were demonstrated. [Endocrine] Abstract

ERBB3 Positively Correlates with Intestinal Stem Cell Markers but Marks a Distinct Non Proliferative Cell Population in Colorectal Cancer
Researchers investigated whether ERBB3 is associated with intestinal stem cell markers in colorectal cancer and if cancer stem cells within tumors are marked by expression of ERBB3. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers were significantly elevated in adenomas and colorectal tumors compared to normal tissue. [PLoS One] Full Article

Pro-Oxidant Activity of Amine-Pyridine-Based Iron Complexes Efficiently Kills Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Researchers took advantage of a selected number of amine-pyridine-based Fe(II) complexes that operate as efficient and robust oxidation catalysts of organic substrates upon reaction with peroxides. Five of these Fe(II)-complexes and the corresponding aminopyridine ligands were selected to evaluate their anticancer properties. [PLoS One] Full Article

Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Downregulation of CD133 Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Stemness and Migratory Ability of Liver Cancer Stem Cells
Investigators elucidated the regulatory mechanism of CD133 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) and whether the ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction-based shRNA delivery system facilitated gene delivery in LCSCs. [Oncol Rep] Abstract

Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
 
REVIEWS
Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Stem Cells
Tumor tissues consist of heterogeneous cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can terminally differentiate into cancer cells. Tissue-specific stem cells in normal organs maintain their stemness in a specific microenvironment, the stem cell niche; several studies have suggested that there are specific microenvironments that maintain CSCs in an immature phenotype. [Adv Drug Deliv Rev] Abstract

Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cancer Stem Cells
The authors focus on two prospective therapeutic approaches that target cancer stem cells with the aim of disrupting their quiescence or redox defense capability. [Cancer Sci] Abstract

Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes: Roles in Stromal Remodeling, Tumor Progression, and Cancer Immunotherapy
The authors discuss the potential of stem cell-derived exosomes in the context of stromal remodeling and their ability to generate cancer-initiating cells in a tumor niche by inducing morphologic and functional differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-initiating fibroblasts. [Chin J Cancer] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
EnGeneIC Ltd. to Initiate U.S. Phase I Clinical Study Using Targeted EDV™ Nanocells to Treat Advanced Glioma Patients
EnGeneIC Ltd. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted the company’s investigational new drug application for using (EGFR)-EDVs loaded with doxorubicin in patients with recurrent glioma. [EnGeneIC Ltd. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Five Prime Therapeutics Initiates Patient Dosing in Phase Ia/Ib Trial Evaluating the Immunotherapy Combination of FPA008 and OPDIVO (Nivolumab) in Six Tumor Types
Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc. announced that it has initiated patient dosing in the Phase Ia/Ib clinical trial evaluating the immunotherapy combination of FPA008, Five Prime’s monoclonal antibody that inhibits colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) with OPDIVO®, Bristol-Myers Squibb’s PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in six tumor types. [Five Prime Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Cancer Research UK and MedImmune Launch Ground-Breaking Biotherapeutics Research Centre in Cambridge
A new laboratory that will focus on the discovery and development of novel biologic cancer treatments and diagnostics has been opened this week in Cambridge. The state-of-the-art CRUK-MEDI Alliance Laboratory is an innovative collaboration between Cancer Research UK, its commercial arm Cancer Research Technology, and MedImmune, the global biologics research and development arm of AstraZeneca. [Cancer Research UK] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2015
November 4-8, 2015
National Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Breast Cancer Invasion / Extracellular Matrix / Proteomics / Microscopy (University of Liverpool)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Cancer Biology (Mass General Cancer Center/Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology/Vascular Biology/Oncology (University of Toulouse)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mammalian Stem Cell Model System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (National Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cancer Research (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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