Volume 4.31 | Aug 19

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.31 August 19, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
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TOP STORY
Selective Inhibition of Parallel DNA Damage Response Pathways Optimizes Radiosensitization of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells
Researchers confirmed that glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were significantly more radioresistant than paired tumor bulk populations. DNA damage response targets ATM, ATR, CHK1, and PARP-1 were upregulated in GSCs, and CHK1 was preferentially activated following ionizing radiation. [Cancer Res] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Regulation of c-Myc Expression by the Histone Demethylase JMJD1A Is Essential for Prostate Cancer Cell Growth and Survival
The authors found that JMJD1A knockdown in prostate cancer cells antagonizes their proliferation and survival. JMJD1A regulated c-Myc stability, likely by inhibiting HUWE1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to target degradation of several substrates including c-Myc. [Oncogene] Abstract

Gene Knockdown by EpCAM Aptamer-SiRNA Chimeras Suppresses Epithelial Breast Cancers and Their Tumor-Initiating Cells
Scientists showed that aptamer-siRNA chimeras are selectively taken up and knockdown gene expression in EpCAM+ cancer cells in vitro and in human cancer biopsy tissues. PLK1 EpCAM-AsiCs inhibit colony and mammosphere formation and tumor initiation by EpCAM+ luminal and basal-A triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, but not EpCAM mesenchymal basal-B TNBCs, in nude mice. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Sonic Hedgehog-Glioma Associated Oncogene Homolog 1 Signaling Enhances Drug Resistance in CD44+/Musashi-1+ Gastric Cancer Stem Cells
Researchers identified a subpopulation of gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) enriched in holoclones that expressed CD44+/Musashi-1+ stem cell biomarkers, capable of self-renewal and proliferation. Enriched CD44+/Musashi-1+ GCSCs demonstrated elevated expression of sonic hedgehog and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1, the well-known signaling pathway molecules involved in the drug resistance. [Cancer Lett] Abstract

Activated and Expanded Natural Killer Cells Target Osteosarcoma Tumor Initiating Cells in an NKG2D–NKG2DL Dependent Manner
The authors explored the efficacy and the pathways involved in natural killer cells’ elimination of osteosarcoma cells, including tumor initiating cells, which are responsible for chemotherapy resistance, recurrence, and metastasis. [Cancer Lett] Cancer Lett

Endothelial Cells Induce Cancer Stem Cell Features in Differentiated Glioblastoma Cells via bFGF
Conditioned medium of tumor microvascular endothelial cells (tMVECs) was able to replenish the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool by phenotypically and functionally reverting differentiated glioblastoma multiform (GBM) cells to the CSC state. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), secreted by tMVECs, recapitulated the effects of the conditioned medium in inducing re-expression of CSC markers and increasing neurosphere formation ability of differentiated GBM cells. [Mol Cancer] Full Article

Metformin Synergizes 5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, and Cyclophosphamide (FEC) Combination Therapy through Impairing Intracellular ATP Production and DNA Repair in Breast Cancer Stem Cells
Scientists demonstrated that metformin, but not other AMPK activators, synergizes 5-fluouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy in non-stem breast cancer cells and breast cancer stem cells. [Apoptosis] Abstract

Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations
Researchers hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of glioma spheres are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability. [PLoS One] Abstract

B7H1 Expression and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotypes on Colorectal Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Investigators determined the expression of B7H1 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated markers in colorectal cancer stem-like cells to investigate a possible immunoevasion way of cancer stem cells (CSCs). They enriched CD133+ colorectal cancer cells which manifested the CSCs-like properties such as higher levels of other stem cell markers Oct-4 and Sox-2, tumor sphere forming ability and more tumorigenic in NOD/SCID mice. [PLoS One] Full Article

Chemical Library Screening and Structure-Function Relationship Studies Identify Bisacodyl as a Potent and Selective Cytotoxic Agent towards Quiescent Human Glioblastoma Tumor Stem-Like Cells
Investigators screened the Prestwick Library to identify cytotoxic compounds towards glioblastoma stem-like cells, either in a proliferating state or in more slow-growing “quiescent” phenotype resulting from non-renewal of the culture medium in vitro. [PLoS One] Full Article

Quercetin Mediates β-Catenin in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Scientists showed that pancreatic cancer stem-like cells have greater resistance to gemcitabine and stronger cancer stem cell properties compared with the parent cells. In contrast to the pancreatic cancer stem-like cells, overexpression of β-catenin was observed in the parent cells. [Pancreas] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Harnessing the Apoptotic Programs in Cancer Stem‐Like Cells
The authors provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. [EMBO Rep] Abstract

Transglutaminase Is a Tumor Cell and Cancer Stem Cell Survival Factor
The authors summarize the role of type II transglutaminase as a cancer cell survival factor in a range of tumor types, and as a target for preventive and therapeutic intervention. [Mol Carcinog] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
$52 Million NIH Grant Advances Clinical and Translational Research at UC San Diego
The Clinical and Translational Research Institute at University of California, San Diego has received a five-year Clinical and Translational Science Award for approximately $52 million from the National Center for Advancing Translational Science, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [UC San Diego Health] Press Release

$120,000 in Cancer Research Pilot Grants Awarded to Promote Collaboration
The University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute has awarded four $40,000 research pilot grants to aid in the interaction and collaboration between basic scientific and clinical investigators and facilitate the translation of laboratory findings into clinical therapies. [University of Cincinnati] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cold Spring Harbor Stem Cell Biology Meeting
October 7-11, 2015
Cold Spring Harbor, New York

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Mammalian Stem Cell Model System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology (National Cancer Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Research Associate – Prostate Cancer (Imperial College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Experimental Oncology/Stem Cell Biology (Academia Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cancer Research (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Brain Tumor Biology and Stem Cells (Universität Basel)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Research (National University of Singapore)

Postdoctoral Cancer Research – Molecular Targets for Tumor Therapy (University of Würzburg)

Postdoctoral Positions- Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Breast Stem Cell Biology (University of Miami Miller School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Cancer Research (German Cancer Research Center)


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