Volume 4.26 | Jul 15

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.26 July 15, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Epigenetic Driver of Glioblastoma Provides New Therapeutic Target
Researchers report that an enzyme known as lysine-specific demethylase 1 turns off genes required to maintain cancer stem cell properties in glioblastoma, a highly aggressive form of brain cancer. This epigenetic activity helps explain how glioblastoma can resist treatment. [Press release from University of California, San Diego discussing online prepublication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA]
Press Release
| Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Microenvironment Modulated Metastatic CD133+/CXCR4+/EpCAM Lung Cancer Initiating Cells Sustain Tumor Dissemination and Correlate with Poor Prognosis
Investigators showed that CD133+/CXCR4+ cancer initiating cells directly isolated from patient-derived xenografts of non-small cell lung cancer are endowed with superior ability to seed and initiate metastasis at distant organs. [Cancer Res] Abstract | Full Article

Pyrvinium Targets CD133 in Human Glioblastoma Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells
Using gain/loss-of-function studies for CD133, researchers assessed the in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumor formation capabilities of patient-derived glioblastoma cells. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract

Dysregulated Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Promotes Metastatic Phenotype in Breast Cancer through HMGA2
PAR1 expression increased spheroid formation and the level of stemness markers and self-renewal capacity in human breast cancer cells. They also identified HMGA2 (high mobility group A2) as an important regulator of PAR1-mediated invasion. [Oncogene] Abstract

Drug Transporter-Mediated Protection of Cancer Stem Cells from Ionophore Antibiotics
Researchers applied chemosensitivity testing of well-characterized human cancer cell lines to elaborate on whether drug transporters are involved in protection from the cytotoxic effects of the ionophore antibiotics salinomycin and nigericin. They demonstrated that ionophore antibiotics were ineffective against both stem-like ovarian cancer side population cells and K562/Dox-H1 cells. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

CAR-Engineered NK Cells Targeting Wild-Type EGFR and EGFRvIII Enhance Killing of Glioblastoma and Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Stem Cells
The authors explored whether both wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII can be effectively targeted by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected natural killer (NK) cells to treat glioblastoma. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Senescent Microenvironment Promotes the Emergence of Heterogeneous Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Researchers showed that post-crisis cells are not able to form tumors unless a senescent microenvironment is provided. They also demonstrated that explanted cells, while displaying differences in cell differentiation markers, are all endowed with enhanced stem cell properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. [Carcinogenesis] Abstract

Extracellular Matrix Properties Regulate the Migratory Response of Glioblastoma Stem Cells in 3D Culture
Investigators developed a composite matrix of hyaluronan structurally supported by a collagen-oligomer fibril network to simulate the brain-tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. This model was compared with the most commonly used in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture formats, Matrigel and collagen type-I monomer matrices, to study how the mechanical and compositional properties of the ECM alter the migration characteristics of glioblastoma stem cell neurospheres. [Tissue Eng Part A] Abstract

Temozolomide Sensitizes Stem-Like Cells of Glioma Spheres to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis via Upregulation of Casitas B-Lineage Lymphoma (c-Cbl) Protein
Scientists investigated whether the widely used chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide can sensitize glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. GSCs were isolated from GBM, and stem cell properties were confirmed by immunocytochemistry and in vivo tumorigenicity. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

Optimum 3D Matrix Stiffness for Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells Is Dependent on Tissue Origin of Cancer Cells
Scientists investigated the effect of cancer cells’ tissue origin on the optimum matrix stiffness for cancer stem cell growth and marker expression in a model polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel without the interference of other factors in the microenvironment. [PLoS One] Full Article

ROCK Inhibition Facilitates In Vitro Expansion of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells
Researchers proposed the use of selective Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors, Y-27632 and fasudil, to promote glioblastoma stem cell/brain tumor initiating cell-like cell survival and propagation in vitro. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Cancer Stem Cells: A Challenging Paradigm for Designing Targeted Drug Therapies
The authors examine the feasibility of leveraging current know-how of the molecular biology of cancer stem cells and their cellular milieu to design futuristic, targeted drugs with potentially lower toxicity that can override the multiple drug-resistance issues currently observed with existing therapeutics. [Drug Discov Today] Abstract

Emerging Role of CD44 in Cancer Stem Cells: A Promising Biomarker and Therapeutic Target
The authors summarize the current findings concerning the critical role of CD44/CD44v in the regulation of cancer stemness and the research status of CD44/CD44v as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer. They also discuss the current challenges and future directions that may lead to the best use of CD44/CD44v for clinical applications. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
UC San Diego and GSK Collaborate to Eradicate Cancer Stem Cells, Treat Leukemia
Researchers at the University of California (UC), San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center are working with GSK on a bench-to-bedside project to treat leukemia and other diseases by eliminating cancer stem cells. [UC San Diego] Press Release

Sorrento and NantBioScience Form Joint Venture to Develop Moonshot Program Targeted Small Molecule Therapies against Cancer
Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. and NantBioScience, Inc. announced that they have established a joint venture to focus on the development of ‘first-in-class’ small molecules against targets that have eluded the pharmaceutical industry to date and which may address important drivers of cancer growth including cancer stem cells. [Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc] Press Release

Ludwig Cancer Research and University of Oxford Launch Cancer Immunotherapy Spinout
Isis Innovation, the University of Oxford’s technology commercialization company, and Ludwig Cancer Research announced the launch of a new spinout company, iOx Therapeutics. iOx Therapeutics will develop a novel cancer immunotherapy discovered through a collaboration between Ludwig Cancer Research and Professor Vincenzo Cerundolo, the director of the MRC Human Immunology Unit within the University of Oxford’s Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine. [Ludwig Cancer Research] Press Release

Cancer Research UK and Cancer Research Technology Announce Partnership with Monopar Therapeutics to Develop New Oncology Compound
Cancer Research UK and Cancer Research Technology have reached agreement with Monopar Therapeutics LLC to take forward Monopar’s experimental antibody treatment HuATN-658 into clinical trials in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors. [Cancer Research UK ] Press Release

FDA Grants Fast Track Designation to Tocagen’s Toca 511 & Toca FC for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Glioma
Tocagen Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation to its lead immuno-oncology product, Toca 511 & Toca FC, for the treatment of recurrent high grade glioma, which includes glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma. [Tocagen Inc. ] Press Release

Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and John Theurer Cancer Center Launch Transformational Collaboration to Advance Cancer Research
Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and John Theurer Cancer Center, part of Hackensack University Medical Center, announced that they have developed a joint cancer research agenda as part of a multi-year plan to form a National Cancer Institute recognized cancer consortium. [Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cancer and Metabolism 2015
September 28-30, 2015
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Positions- Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Position – Anti-Cancer Nano-Particle Drug Testing: Cell Pathways and Cytotoxicity (University of Southern Denmark)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Breast Stem Cell Biology (University of Miami Miller School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Cancer Research (German Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Immunotherapy (University of California, Los Angeles)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Cancer Immunotherapeutics (City of Hope)

Professor – Cancer Stem Cells (Dalian Medical University)

Research Technician (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)


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