Volume 4.21 | June 3

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.21 June 3, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
MacroH2A1 Downregulation Enhances the Stem-Like Properties of Bladder Cancer Cells by Transactivation of Lin28B
Researchers showed that macroH2A1 knockdown promotes stem-like properties of bladder cancer cells. The knockdown of macroH2A1 in bladder cancer cells increased tumorigenicity, radioresistance, degeneration of reactive oxygen species, sphere formation capability and the proportion of side populations. [Oncogene] Full Article
Going to ISSCR 2015? We’ll see you there!
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
SRY and OCT4 Are Required for the Acquisition of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Are Potential Differentiation Therapy Targets
Investigators describe a novel mechanism of cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance by SRY through OCT4. In human hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells, SRY knockdown decreased OCT4 expression and cancer stem-like phenotypes such as self-renewal, chemoresistance, and tumorigenicity. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Combination Treatment with All-Trans Retinoic Acid Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Enrichment of CD133+ Tumor-Initiating Cells and Reveals Heterogeneity of Cancer Stem Cell Compartment in Lung Cancer
The authors report, by in vitro cell fate tracing systems, heterogeneity within the tumor initiating cell compartment with a highly quiescent pool and a slowly dividing subpopulation, both containing CD133+ cells but respectively enriched for CD133+/CXCR4 and CD133+/CXCR4+ cells. [J Thorac Oncol] Abstract

Identification of a Distinct Population of CD133+CXCR4+ Cancer Stem Cells in Ovarian Cancer
CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Scientists isolated cells with stem cell features by sorting the cells expressing CD133+CXCR4+ within ovarian cancer cell lines. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Nuclear Localized Akt Enhances Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells through Counter-Regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27kip1
Researchers found that the cellular localization of PKB/Akt kinase affects the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). When Akt tagged with nuclear localization signal was overexpressed in SKBR3 and MDAMB468 cells, these cells showed a 10–15% increase in the number of cells with CSCs enhanced ALDH activity and showing CD44+High/CD24–Low phenotype. [Cell Cycle] Abstract

Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 Inhibits Glioma Stem-Like Cells by Reversing Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, Inducing Apoptosis and Decreasing Cancer Stem Cell Properties
Scientists explored the effect of the Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein 4, in modulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cancer stem cells from human glioblastoma cells lines, U87 and U373. [PLoS One] Full Article

Stemness of the Hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal State in Breast Cancer and Its Association with Poor Survival
Researchers found that co-expression of epithelial (E) and mesenchymal (M) signatures was associated with poorest outcome in luminal and basal breast cancer patients as well as with enrichment for stem-like cells in both E and M breast cell-lines. [PLoS One] Full Article

Retinoic Acid Reduces Stem Cell-Like Features in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Using different pancreatic cancer cell lines, investigators evaluated the effect of retinoic acid alone or in combination with chemotherapy on regulating cancer stem cells properties and pathways. [Pancreas] Abstract

Exposure of Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Apoptotic MCF-7 Cells Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis
To clarify the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer recurrence and metastasis, scientists used a co-culture model of macrophages and apoptotic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells to investigate the effects of TAMs on MCF-7 in vitro and in vivo. [Int J Mol Sci] Abstract | Download Full Article

Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells Induce the M2 Polarization of Macrophages through the PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways
Investigators evaluated the effects of ovarian cancer stem cells on macrophage M1/M2 polarization. They also investigated whether the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway is involved in these effects, thus modulating the M1/M2 differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. [Int J Mol Med] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Regulation of NANOG in Cancer Cells
Many studies suggest that NANOG enhances the defined characteristics of cancer stem cells and may thus function as an oncogene to promote carcinogenesis. The current review provides a most updated summary on how NANOG expression is regulated during tumor development and progression. [Mol Carcinog] Abstract

Apoptotic and Autophagic Pathways with Relevant Small-Molecule Compounds, in Cancer Stem Cells
The authors summarize regulation of apoptosis and autophagy in cancer stem cells (CSCs) to elucidate how key proteins participate in control of survival and death; in addition, currently well-studied compounds that target CSC apoptosis and autophagy are selectively presented. [Cell Prolif] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Boston Biomedical Data at ASCO 2015 Highlights Potential of Novel Investigational Cancer Stem Cell Pathway Inhibitors BBI608 and BBI503 in Multiple Cancer Types
Boston Biomedical, an industry leader in the development of novel compounds designed to target cancer stem cell pathways, will present clinical data on the investigational compounds BBI608 and BBI503 in multiple tumor types. [Press release from Boston Biomedical discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

NCI-MATCH Trial Will Link Targeted Cancer Drugs to Gene Abnormalities
Investigators for the nationwide trial, NCI-MATCH: Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice, announced that the precision medicine trial will open to patient enrolment in July. The trial seeks to determine whether targeted therapies for people whose tumors have specific gene mutations will be effective regardless of their cancer type. [Press release from National Institute of Health discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn about applications of ALDHbr cells in regenerative medicine. Watch the video.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
CPRIT Awards $16.6 Million for Cancer Research, Prevention, and Faculty Recruitment
The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers more than $12.6 million in research grants for cancer research and prevention, as well as an additional $4 million for recruiting cancer scientists. [UT Southwestern Medical Center] Press Release

The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research Invests $4.6 Million to Support Pancreatic Cancer Research
The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research (OICR) announced OICR is investing $4.6 million over two years in PanCuRx, an initiative that seeks solutions to the high fatality rate of pancreatic cancer. [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2nd International Symposium of the Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL)
September 21-23, 2015
Lyon, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Associate/Assistant Professor – NeuroOncology (University of Chicago)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Cancer Biology (University of California, San Francisco)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer, Stem Cell, and Developmental Biology (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Neurology & Cancer Stem Cells (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Epigenetics, Stem Cells and Cancer (University of Copenhagen)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Weill Cornell College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Research (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cell Death of Normal Tissue Stem Cells & Cancer Stem Cells (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Biology (University of Pennsylvania)


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