Volume 4.17 | May 6

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.17 May 6, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Targeting Notch Signaling with a Notch2/Notch3 Antagonist (Tarextumab) Inhibits Tumor Growth and Decreases Tumor-Initiating Cell Frequency
Researchers describe the development of an antibody, OMP-59R5 (tarextumab), which blocks both Notch2 and Notch3 signaling. OMP-59R5 inhibited both human and mouse Notch2 and Notch3 function and its antitumor activity was characterized by a dual mechanism of action in both tumor and stromal/vascular cells in xenograft experiments. [Clin Cancer Res] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release
Live Webinar: New Tools for Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Ce
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
CDC20 Maintains Tumor Initiating Cells
Scientists investigated the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of tumor initiating cells. [Oncotarget] Full Article

Inhibition of Mouse Breast Tumor Initiating Cells by Calcitriol and Dietary Vitamin D
Scientists examined the effect of dietary vitamin D and calcitriol on mouse breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Calcitriol inhibited TIC tumor spheroid formation in a dose-dependent manner in primary cultures and inhibited TIC self-renewal in secondary passages [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

Transglutaminase Is Required for Epidermal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cell Survival
Transglutaminase type II (TGM2/TG2) showed promise as a target for anti-cancer stem cell therapy in human squamous cell carcinoma. TG2 was determined to be highly elevated in epidermal cancer stem cells (ECS cells) and TG2 knockdown or suppression of TG2 function with inhibitors reduced ECS cell survival, spheroid formation, matrigel invasion and migration. [Mol Cancer Ther] Abstract

miR-21 and miR-145 Cooperation in Regulation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells
Researchers investigated the role that microRNAs (miRs), specifically miR-21 and miR-145 play in regulating colon cancer stem cells (CSCs). They found the expression of miR-21 to be greatly increased and miR-145 decreased in chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSC, indicating a role for these miRNAs in regulating CSCs. [Mol Cancer] Full Article

Fibroblast-Derived Exosomes Contribute to Chemoresistance through Priming Cancer Stem Cells in Colorectal Cancer
Scientists investigated whether fibroblasts might increase cancer stem cells (CSCs) thus mediating chemotherapy resistance. Fibroblast-derived conditioned medium promoted percentage, clonogenicity and tumor growth of CSCs upon treatment with 5-fluorouracil or oxaliplatin. [Curr Mol Med] Abstract

Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits Colon Cancer by Regulating Cancer Cell Stemness In Vitro and In Vivo
The potential for Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract and its two bioactive compounds, tricin and p-coumaric acid, to exert anti-cancer stem cell effects by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics were evaluated in colon cancer cells. [Int J Mol Sci] Abstract | Download Full Article

Kinome-Wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells
To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive mesenchymal (MES) glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs), investigators combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and proneural GSCs. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article

The Androgen Receptor Plays a Suppressive Role in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Progenitor Cells
Scientists investigated the roles of androgen receptor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human prostate cancer stem progenitor (S/P) cells isolated from LNCaP cell line. The data showed that S/P cells from LNCaP had high EMT markers expression, more tumorigenesis and strong migration ability. [BMC Biochemistry] Abstract | Full Article

FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
 
REVIEWS
Nestin as a Marker of Cancer Stem Cells
The authors summarize the recent findings regarding nestin expression in cancer stem cells (CSCs), its possible role in CSC phenotypes, particularly with respect to capacity for self-renewal, and its utility as a putative marker of CSCs. [Cancer Sci] Abstract

Therapeutic Potential of Cancer Stem Cells
The authors explore the roles of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in cancer’s relapse and progression and discuss the biomarkers of CSCs to predict clinical outcome and their diagnostic potential. The different approaches of CSC therapies are also reviewed, including cytotoxic, radiation, differentiation and targeting signaling pathways. [Med Oncol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

Target Cancer Metabolism
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Clinicians Tap Watson to Accelerate DNA Analysis and Inform Personalized Treatment Options for Patients
IBM Watson Health announced that it is collaborating with more than a dozen leading cancer institutes to accelerate the ability of clinicians to identify and personalize treatment options for their patients. [IBM Watson Health] Press Release

UB Spinoff Gets $2 Million for Research on Cancer Therapy
For-Robin, a University at Buffalo (UB) spinoff company, has received a $2 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study and develop a promising potential treatment for breast and other types of cancer. [University of Buffalo] Press Release

From our sponsor:
Free Cell Stem Cell wallchart – Directed Differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs.
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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW International Society for Stem Cell Research 2015 Annual Meeting
June 24-27, 2015
Stockholm, Sweden

NEW Cell Death
September 15-19, 2015
Cold Spring Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Position – Neurology & Cancer Stem Cells (Cardiff University)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Epigenetics, Stem Cells and Cancer (University of Copenhagen)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Weill Cornell College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Research (INSERM)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Colon Cancer (Baylor Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cell Death of Normal Tissue Stem Cells & Cancer Stem Cells (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Biology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Breast Cancer & Stem Cell Biology (University of Cincinnati)


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