Volume 4.14 | Apr 15

Cancer Stem Cell News 4.14 April 15, 2015
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Researchers Identify Drug Target for ATRA, the First Precision Cancer Therapy
Scientists identified an inhibitor of the Pin1 enzyme that can address challenges in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and triple negative breast cancer. Their discovery demonstrates that the vitamin A derivative ATRA (all-trans retinoic acid) can block multiple cancer-driving pathways and, at the same time, eliminate cancer stem cells by degrading the Pin1 enzyme. [Press release from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center discussing online publication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
Protocol and Data: Serum-Free, 3D Suspension Assay for Breast Cancer Cells
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Lin28B/Let-7 Regulates Expression of Oct4 and Sox2 and Reprograms Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells to a Stem-Like State
Researchers demonstrated a correlation between high levels of Lin28B, Oct4, and Sox2, and a high percentage of CD44+ALDH1+ cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC). Ectopic Lin28B expression in CD44ALDH1/OSCC cells was sufficient to enhance Oct4/Sox2 expression and CSC properties, whereas Let7 co-overexpression effectively reversed these phenomena. [Cancer Res] Abstract | Full Article

Clonogenically Culturing and Expanding CD34+ Liver Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro
Investigators successfully clonogenically cultured a newly identified CD34+ liver cancer stem cell (LCSC) on feeder cells up to 22 passages without losing cancer stem cell property. Cloned CD34+ LCSC formed a round, packed morphology, and it also could be cryopreserved and re-cultured. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

CRLX101, an Investigational Camptothecin-Containing Nanoparticle-Drug Conjugate, Targets Cancer Stem Cells and Impedes Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
Researchers tested whether inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) can reverse the stimulatory effects of antiangiogenic-induced hypoxia on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Breast cancer cells grown under hypoxic conditions were treated with the dual topoisomerase-1 and HIF-1α inhibitor camptothecin and assessed for their CSC content. [Breast Cancer Res Treat] Abstract | Press Release

Novel Anticancer Activity of Phloroglucinol against Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells
Scientists report that phloroglucinol (PG) suppressed sphere formation, anchorage-independent colony formation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Treatment with PG also decreased CD44+ cancer cell population as well as expression of cancer stem cell regulators such as Sox2, CD44, Oct4, Notch2 and β-catenin. [Toxicol Appl Pharm] Abstract

Phenotypic Diversity of Patient-Derived Melanoma Populations in Stem Cell Medium
Scientists observed that not all nodular melanoma patient-derived cell populations grown in stem cell medium were capable of forming melanospheres, and cell aggregates and anchorage-independent single-cell cultures emerged instead. Self-renewing capacity and unlimited growth potential indicated the presence of cells with stem-like properties in all patient-derived populations but immunophenotype and MITF expression exhibited variability. [Lab Invest] Abstract

Aspirin Blocks Growth of Breast Tumor Cells and Tumor-Initiating Cells and Induces Reprogramming Factors of Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition
Investigators showed a strong beneficial effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in the prevention of breast carcinogenesis. They found that ASA not only prevents breast tumor cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice xenograft model through the induction of apoptosis, but also significantly reduced the self-renewal capacity and growth of breast tumor-initiating cells/breast cancer stem cells and delays the formation of a palpable tumor. [Lab Invest] Abstract

Pygo2 siRNA Inhibit the Growth and Increase Apoptosis of U251 Cell by Suppressing Histone H3K4 Trimethylation
Scientists investigated the role of Pygopus (Pygo) 2 in human glioma U251 cells and showed that knocking down of the expression of Pygo2 in U251 cells using lentivirally expressed siRNA have inhibited cell proliferation and increased apoptosis through decreasing H3K4me3 expression. They also found Pygo2 was enriched in U251 glioma cancer stem-like cells and Pygo2 siRNA resulted in a reduced number as well as size of tumor spheres. [J Mol Neurosci] Abstract

Comparative Characterization of Stem Cell Marker Expression, Metabolic Activity and Resistance to Doxorubicin in Adherent and Spheroid Cells Derived from the Canine Prostate Adenocarcinoma Cell Line CT1258
Expression of 12 stem cell marker genes in the canine prostate cancer cell line CT1258 and spheroid cells generated from these was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. In CT1258 and the generated spheroid cells, CD44 and CD133 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, as well as proliferation and doxorubicin resistance. [Anticancer Res] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Targeting Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt Pathways in Cancer Stem Cells: Clinical Update
The authors provide an update on the latest advances in the clinical development of such approaches, and discuss new treatment strategies to control stem-cell replication, survival and differentiation. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Cancer Stem Cells and Inflammation
Recent studies have shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and activated immune effector cells exhibit high hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) activity in normoxic environments and that HIF activity is critical in the maintenance of cancer stem cells as well as the differentiation and function of inflammatory cells. Given that inflammation and CSCs are two major barriers to effective cancer therapy, targeting HIF may provide a new approach to developing such treatments. [Trends Pharmacol Sci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Medivir and Cancer Research Technology Collaborate to Develop New Class of Cancer Drugs
Medivir AB and Cancer Research Technology, Cancer Research UK’s commercialization and development arm, jointly announced a partnership to develop a new class of drugs that has shown promise for treating a range of different cancers, including pancreatic cancer. [Medivir AB] Press Release

£5m Stratified Medicine Program Launched to Personalize Care for Bowel Cancer Patients
Cancer Research UK and the Medical Research Council have jointly launched a Stratified Medicine Consortium to help personalize bowel cancer treatment by matching patients to the most effective therapies. [Cancer Research UK] Press Release

Pfizer Announces PALOMA-3 Trial for IBRANCE® (Palbociclib) Stopped Early Due to Efficacy Seen in Patients with HR+, HER2 Metastatic Breast Cancer Whose Disease Has Progressed following Endocrine Therapy
Pfizer Inc. announced that the Phase III PALOMA-3 trial for IBRANCE® (palbociclib) met its primary endpoint of demonstrating an improvement in progression-free survival for the combination of IBRANCE plus fulvestrant compared with fulvestrant plus placebo in women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2) metastatic breast cancer following disease progression during or after endocrine therapy. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Symposia: Cancer, Inflammation, and Immunity
June 14-16, 2015
Sitges, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Cell Death of Normal Tissue Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center )

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Signaling and Cancer Dissemination (University Hospital in Brno)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Biology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Case Western Reserve University)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Imaging (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Triple Negative Breast Cancer (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Breast Cancer & Stem Cell Biology (University of Cincinnati)

PhD Positions – Immunological Aspects of Cancer and Allergy (University of Salzburg)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell and Cancer (Brigham & Women’s Hospital)


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