Volume 2.36 | Sep 11

Cancer Stem Cell News 2.36 September 11, 2013
Cancer Stem Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Enhance Stemness of Cancer Cells by Inducing MicroRNA101 and Suppressing the Corepressor C-Terminal Binding Protein-2
Investigators examined the interaction between myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) in patients with ovarian carcinoma and showed that MDSCs inhibited T cell activation and enhanced CSC gene expression, sphere formation, and cancer metastasis. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release
Reference Guide: NeuroCult™ for Brain Tumor Research
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Hypoxia and Oxygenation Induce a Metabolic Switch between Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Glycolysis in Glioma Stem-Like Cells
Scientists identified a reciprocal metabolic switch between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glycolysis in glioblastoma stem-like cells. Expression of PPP enzymes is upregulated by acute oxygenation but downregulated by hypoxia, whereas glycolysis enzymes, particularly those of the preparatory phase, are regulated inversely. [Acta Neuropathol] Abstract | Full Article

Erythropoietin Activates Cell Survival Pathways in Breast Cancer Stem-Like Cells to Protect Them from Chemotherapy
The authors found that breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSC) isolated from patient tumors express the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and respond to EPO treatment with increased proliferation and self-renewal. Importantly, EPO stimulation increased BCSC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and activated cellular pathways responsible for survival and drug resistance. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Fibulin-3-Mediated Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Self-Renewal of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-Positive Lung Cancer Stem Cells through Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling
Investigators evaluated the roles and signaling mechanism of Fibulin-3 (FBLN3) in lung cancer stem cells. Forced expression of FBLN3 suppressed invasion and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells and decreased the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition activators, including N-cadherin and Snail. [Oncogene] Abstract

Cancer Stem Cell Markers Are Enriched in Normal Tissue Adjacent to Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Inversely Correlated with DNA Repair Deficiency
Researchers hypothesized that cells present in normal tissue that bear cancer stem cell markers may represent a cancer cell of origin or a microenvironment primed for tumor development, and that their presence may correlate with the clinically-defined subtypes of breast cancer that show increased tumorigenicity and stem cell features. [Breast Cancer Res] Abstract | Full Article

Disulfiram Targets Cancer Stem-Like Cells and Reverses Resistance and Cross-Resistance in Acquired Paclitaxel-Resistant Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
The authors have previously reported that disulfiram, an antialcoholism drug, targets cancer stem cells (CSCs) and enhances cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. In this study, disulfiram abolished CSC characters and completely reversed paclitaxel and cisplatin resistance in MDA-MB-231PAC10 cells. [Br J Cancer] Abstract

Colorectal Adenoma Stem-Like Cell Populations: Associations with Adenoma Characteristics and Metachronous Colorectal Neoplasia
Stem-like cells are present in colorectal adenomas, but their relationship to adenoma pathology and patient characteristics, including metachronous development of an additional adenoma (“recurrence”), have not been studied extensively. Scientists evaluated the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1, a putative stem cell marker, in baseline adenomas from the placebo arm of chemoprevention trial participants with colonoscopic follow-up. [Cancer Prev Res] Abstract

Sulforaphane Inhibits Mammary Adipogenesis by Targeting Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Investigators examined the role of mesenchymal stem cell-differentiated adipocytes on breast cancer cell migration, and tested the effects of sulforaphane (a dietary chemoprevention agent) on adipocyte-breast cancer cell interaction. [Breast Cancer Res Treat] Abstract

Periostin Contributes to the Acquisition of Multipotent Stem Cell-Like Properties in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancer Cells
Scientists demonstrated that periostin (POSTN) promotes a stem cell-like trait and a mesenchymal phenotype in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of POSTN or recombinant POSTN treatment can induce human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells differentiation into multiple cell lineages that recapitulate part of the multilineage differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

CD49fhigh Cells Retain Sphere-Forming and Tumor-Initiating Activities in Human Gastric Tumors
There are reports that gastric tumor-initiating cells (TICs) can be identified using the cell surface marker CD44 and that they form floating spheres in culture, but the authors could not obtain consistent results with their patient-derived tumor xenograft cells. They thus searched for another marker for gastric TICs, and found that CD49fhigh cells from newly-dissected gastric cancers formed tumors with histological features of parental ones while CD49flow cells did not when subcutaneously injected into immunodeficient mice. [PLoS One]
Full Article

Bufalin Inhibits the Differentiation and Proliferation of Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line hMG63-Derived Cancer Stem Cells
The authors developed a new strategy to enrich cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the human osteosarcoma cell line hMG63. Using these CSCs as model, they tested the effect of bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, on the proliferation and differentiation of CSCs. [Tumour Biol] Abstract

Register for Live Webinar: Customizing the Hematopoietic CFC Assay for Drug Development
 
REVIEWS
Lung Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Features and Therapeutic Targets
This review summarizes the current understanding of lung cancer stem cells, including their molecular features and signaling pathways that drive their stemness. It also discusses the potential strategies to inhibit the signaling pathways driving stemness, in an effort to eradicate these cells to combat lung cancer. [Mol Aspects Med] Abstract

Therapy Targets in Glioblastoma and Cancer Stem Cells: Lessons from Hematopoietic Neoplasms
This review focuses on putative novel therapy targets represented by markers described to define cancer stem/initiating cells in malignant gliomas, which have been called ‘leukemia of the brain’, given their rapid migration and evolution. Parallels are drawn with other cancers, especially hematopoietic, given the similar rampant proliferation and treatment resistance of glioblastoma multiforme and secondary acute leukemias. [J Cell Mol Med] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the cancer stem cell research field.

Stem Cell Society Singapore 2013 Symposium
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Verastem Initiates COMMAND: A Registration-Directed Trial of Defactinib in Patients with Mesothelioma
Verastem, Inc. announced the initiation of COMMAND (Control Of Mesothelioma with MAiNtenance Defactinib). COMMAND is a registration-directed trial of lead cancer stem cell inhibitor defactinib (VS-6063) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma, a highly aggressive form of lung cancer with a high percentage of cancer stem cells. [Verastem, Inc.] Press Release

Stem Cell Therapeutics Advances CD47 Antagonist Program into IND-Enabling Phase
Stem Cell Therapeutics Corp. announced that it has advanced its CD47 antagonist program into an Investigational New Drug (IND) enabling phase. In collaboration with a contract manufacturing organization, Stem Cell Therapeutics will begin the manufacturing process to generate drug for formal toxicology studies and a subsequent Phase I clinical study, which is anticipated to begin in H2/2015. [Stem Cell Therapeutics Corp.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

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EVENTS
NEW 1st Annual Conference of the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN)
November 11-13, 2013
Berlin, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Tenure Track Faculty Positions – Cancer Biology (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center)

Assistant Professor – Developmental and Stem Cell Biology (METU Department of Biology)

Principal Scientist – Cancer Stem Cells (Pharma Professionals Europe Ltd)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Cancer Stem Cell Biology and Pharmacogenomics (Biotech Research & Innovation Center, University of Copenhagen)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Appointee – Cell Cycle Regulation in Tumor Stem Cells (Rutgers University, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey)

Research Technician – Self-Renewal of Cancer Stem Cells (University of Chicago)


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