Volume 2.04 | Jan 30

Cancer Stem Cell News 2.04 January 30, 2013
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TOP STORY
β4 Integrin Signaling Induces Expansion of Prostate Tumor Progenitors
Mechanistic studies indicated that mutant β4 fails to promote transactivation of ErbB2 and c-Met in prostate tumor progenitor cells and human cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ErbB2 and c-Met reduced the ability of prostate tumor progenitor cells to undergo self-renewal in vitro. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications

PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)

ST6Gal-I Protein Expression Is Upregulated in Human Epithelial Tumors and Correlates with Stem Cell Markers in Normal Tissues and Colon Cancer Cell Lines
Researchers found that selection of irinotecan resistance in colon carcinoma cells led to a greater proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) compared with parental cells, as measured by the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1 activity (Aldefluor). These chemoresistant cells exhibited a corresponding upregulation of ST6Gal-I expression. [Cancer Res] Abstract
 
The PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway Controls the Quiescence of the Low-Rhodamine123-Retention Cell Compartment Enriched for Melanoma Stem Cell Activity
Researchers utilized a Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) exclusion assay to functionally identify stem-like cells in metastatic human melanomas and melanoma cell lines. They demonstrated that a small subset of Rh123-low-retention cells is enriched for stem cell-like activities, including the ability to self-renew and produce non-stem Rh123high progeny and to form melanospheres, recapitulating the phenotypic profile of the parental tumor. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Human NK Cells Selective Targeting of Colon Cancer-Initiating Cells: A Role for Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors and MHC Class I Molecules
The authors analyzed the NK cell recognition of tumor target cells derived from the two cancer cell compartments of colon adenocarcinoma lesions. Their data demonstrated that freshly purified allogeneic NK cells can recognize and kill colorectal carcinoma-derived cancer-initiating cells (CICs) whereas the non-CIC counterpart of the tumors (differentiated tumor cells), either autologous or allogeneic, is less susceptible to NK cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

LGR5 Promotes Survival in Human Colorectal Adenoma Cells and Is Upregulated by PGE2: Implications for Targeting Adenoma Stem Cells with NSAIDs
Given that the key intestinal cancer stem cell marker LGR5 (Leucine-rich G-protein coupled Receptor 5) is a Wnt target and PGE2 enhances Wnt signaling, the authors investigated whether PGE2 regulated LGR5 expression in colorectal adenoma cells and whether LGR5 was important for tumor cell survival. [Carcinogenesis] Abstract
 
Tspan8, CD44v6 and Alpha6Beta4 Are Biomarkers of Migrating Pancreatic Cancer Initiating Cells
This is the first report showing that CD44v6, alpha6beta4, Tspan8 and CXCR4 are biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma initiating cells allowing for long-term survival, expansion and migration in immunocompromised mice. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

Identification of an ABCB1 (P-Glycoprotein)-Positive Carfilzomib-Resistant Myeloma Subpopulation by the Pluripotent Stem Cell Fluorescent Dye CDy1
Scientists report that efflux of the pluripotent stem cell dye CDy1 identifies a subpopulation in multiple myeloma cell lines characterized by increased expression of P-glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters encoded by ABCB1. [Am J Hematol] Abstract | Press Release

Population Dynamics of Normal and Leukemia Stem Cells in the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche Show Distinct Regimes where Leukemia Will Be Controlled
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must be located in their ecological niche to function correctly, that is, to regenerate themselves and their progeny; the latter eventually exit the bone marrow and enter circulation. Scientists proposed that cells with oncogenic potential-cancer/leukaemia stem cells (LSC)-and their progeny will also occupy this niche. Mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of HSCs, LSCs and their progeny allow investigation into the conditions necessary for defeating a malignant invasion of the niche. [J R Soc Interface] Full Article | Press Release

Fluorouracil Selectively Enriches Stem-Like Cells in the Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line SPC
Scientists report that side population cells (SPCs) possess greater invasive potential, higher clone-forming potential, and greater tumor-forming ability than non-SPCs, and that treatment with 5-fluorouracil enriches the SPCs with stem cell properties in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. [Tumour Biol] Abstract

ADAM17 Regulates Self-Renewal and Differentiation of U87 Glioblastoma Stem Cells
Researchers showed that glioma cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133 coexpress higher levels of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) than matched CD133- glioma cells. Knockdown of the ADAM17 gene in U87 glioblastoma stem cells down-regulated the expression of CD133, inhibited secondary neurosphere formation and induced multi-lineage differentiation. [Neurosci Lett] Abstract

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REVIEWS

Heterogeneity of Neoplastic Stem Cells: Theoretical, Functional, and Clinical Implications
The authors suggest the term neoplastic refer to clones of cells that have any type of somatic aberrancy associated with an increased propensity to become malignant, and the derivative term neoplastic stem cell be adopted to identify the cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of such clones, and that the term cancer stem cells would then be more appropriately restricted to cells generating subclones that have established malignant properties. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cancer Stem Cells
The authors review strategies targeting cancer stem cells that may bring new hopes to cancer therapy. [Cancer Biol Ther] Abstract

Biological and Clinical Implications of Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Brain Tumors
The authors discuss recent advances in glioblastoma multiforme stem cell (GBM-SC) biology, mechanisms through which these cells adapt to hostile conditions, pharmacological strategies for selectively killing GBM-SCs, and how novel cancer stem cell-associated endpoints have been investigated in the clinical setting. [Front Oncol] Abstract

INDUSTRY NEWS

Salk Institute Awarded Historic $42 Million Grant From the Helmsley Charitable Trust
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies has received a $42 million gift-the largest in the Institute’s history-to establish the Helmsley Center for Genomic Medicine, a research center dedicated to decoding the common genetic factors underlying many complex chronic human diseases. The award, from the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, will support interdisciplinary research that paves the way to new therapies for chronic illnesses such as cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. [Salk Institute for Biological Studies] Press Release

Seattle Genetics and Millennium Initiate Global Phase III Clinical Trial of ADCETRIS® (Brentuximab Vedotin) in Front-line CD30-Expressing Mature T-Cell Lymphoma (MTCL)

Seattle Genetics, Inc. and Millennium: The Takeda Oncology Company announced the initiation of a global phase III clinical trial evaluating ADCETRIS in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed CD30-positive MTCL patients, including patients with systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma and other types of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. [Seattle Genetics, Inc.] Press Release

Dr. Alex Matter Awarded 2013 Szent-Gyorgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research
Alex Matter has been awarded the 8th Szent-Gyorgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research for his contributions to the development of the first drug specifically targeting a molecular lesion in cancer. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
EVENTS

NEW 7th Conference on Experimental and Translational Oncology
April 20-24, 2013
Portoroz, Slovenia


Visit
our events page to see a complete list of events in the cancer stem cell community.

JOB OPPORTUNITIES

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Research (Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin – MKFZ)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Biology and Stem Cell (University of Texas at Houston, Medical School)

PhD Student and Postdoctoral Positions – Tumor Immunology and Cancer Stem Cell Research (University Clinics Freiburg)

Postdoctoral Associate (University of California, Berkeley)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (Mount Sinai Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cells and Cancer (Tsinghua University)

Postdoctoral Position – Cancer Stem Cell Biology (Spanish National Cancer Research Centre [CNIO])

Postdoctoral Fellow (University of Michigan – Ann Arbor)


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